Category Archives: Berita

Kiat mencegah membengkaknya korban gangguan stroke dan jantung

NEJM edisi 13 september 2011 memuat artikel perspektif tentang stroke dan penyakit jantung. Tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa stroke dan jantung telah menjadi momok yang menakutkan di seantero jagad raya. Stroke dan penyakit jantung telah menjadi penyebab kematian terbesar. Di Amerika, stroke dan penyakit kardiovaskuler diidap lebih dari 2 juta dengan 800.000 atau lebih penderita berakhir dengan kematian. Bagaimana kiat untuk mengerem laju perkembangan kedua penyakit pembunuh ini, baca Berita selengkapnya sebagai berikut:
Perspective
The “Million Hearts” Initiative — Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes

Thomas R. Frieden, M.D., M.P.H., and Donald M. Berwick, M.D., M.P.P.

September 13, 2011 (10.1056/NEJMp1110421)

Article
References

Each year, more than 2 million Americans have a heart attack or stroke, and more than 800,000 of them die; cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and the largest cause of lower life expectancy among blacks. Related medical costs and productivity losses approach $450 billion annually, and inflation-adjusted direct medical costs are projected to triple over the next two decades if present trends continue.1

To reduce this burden, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), other federal, state, and local government agencies, and a broad range of private-sector partners are today launching a “Million Hearts” initiative to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over the next 5 years by implementing proven, effective, inexpensive interventions (see tableThe Million Hearts Initiative: Principles and Examples of Interventions.).

Cardiovascular prevention works in two realms: the clinic and the community. Clinical and community interventions each contributed about equally to the 50% reduction in U.S. mortality due to heart attacks between 1980 and 2000.2 If used consistently, proven interventions could prevent more than half of heart attacks and strokes. It’s time to take the next big step.

In the clinical realm, Million Hearts will improve management of the “ABCS” — aspirin for high-risk patients, blood-pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking cessation. As for community-based prevention, the initiative will encourage efforts to reduce smoking, improve nutrition, and reduce blood pressure. It will implement the cardiovascular-disease–prevention priorities of the National Quality and National Prevention Strategies and help in meeting targets set by Healthy People 2020.

Improving management of the ABCS can prevent more deaths than other clinical preventive services.3 Patients reduce their risk of heart attack or stroke by taking aspirin as appropriate. Treating high blood pressure and high cholesterol substantially and quickly reduces mortality among high-risk patients. Even brief smoking-cessation advice from clinicians doubles the likelihood of a successful quit attempt, and the use of medications increases quit rates further.

Currently, less than half of people with ischemic heart disease take daily aspirin or another antiplatelet agent; less than half with hypertension have it adequately controlled; only a third with hyperlipidemia have adequate treatment; and less than a quarter of smokers who try to quit get counseling or medications. As a result, more than 100 million people — half of American adults — smoke or have uncontrolled high blood pressure or cholesterol; many have more than one of these cardiovascular risk factors. Increasing utilization of these simple interventions could save more than 100,000 lives a year.3 Measuring and monitoring can encourage providers to improve preventive care.4

Improving care is particularly critical in light of increases in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Obesity and physical activity are currently being addressed by complementary efforts designed to improve understanding, implement pilot or community-based programs, and evaluate outcomes. The First Lady’s “Let’s Move” campaign is a comprehensive initiative with the goal of ending childhood obesity — a precursor to cardiovascular disease — within a generation by fostering environments that support increased physical activity and improved nutrition for children and families. And public and private partners are working to expand the Diabetes Prevention Program, which promotes weight loss, improved nutrition, and increased physical activity among people at highest risk.

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides a strong foundation for Million Hearts by increasing coverage and facilitating improved care. It waives patient cost sharing for preventive services, including blood-pressure and cholesterol screening and smoking-cessation counseling and treatment, for enrollees in new private insurance plans. The new annual wellness visit for Medicare beneficiaries will help physicians focus on reducing cardiovascular risk and target interventions appropriately. Eliminating Medicare’s “doughnut hole” in prescription-drug coverage will increase access to blood-pressure, cholesterol-lowering, and smoking-cessation medications. Covering 32 million currently uninsured Americans will reduce financial barriers to preventive care, and expanding community health centers will increase access to care and reduce health disparities. In addition, electronic health records (EHRs) will support improved clinical decision making.

Additional means of increasing control of the ABCS include reducing or eliminating copayments for medications, once-a-day dosing, team-based care approaches, stepwise care management, and new forms of payment and delivery for higher-quality, higher-value, and coordinated care, such as those envisioned for accountable care organizations.

Expanding use of prevention-oriented EHRs will enable providers and health systems to track and improve management of the ABCS. Incorporating core ABCS-related quality measures and decision-support tools into the 2013–2014 criteria for “meaningful use” of information technology and providing technical assistance through quality-improvement organizations in all states, the 62 Health Information Technology Regional Extension Centers (which reach nearly 100,000 primary care doctors), and Beacon Communities will reach more than 100 million patients within the next few years.

Million Hearts will work to standardize core ABCS indicators across medical practices, insurers, institutional providers, and systems in public and nonpublic settings. Standardization will facilitate public reporting and identification and diffusion of best practices and will reduce providers’ burden by streamlining quality measurement and improvement. The initiative will be linked to quality-recognition programs (e.g., the Physician Quality Reporting System and star ratings for Medicare Part D and Medicare Advantage plans) and may eventually support approaches in which providers are paid more for better preventive care.

Community-based prevention works by facilitating healthy choices. Important community-based prevention initiatives include those funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act’s Communities Putting Prevention to Work program and programs supported by the ACA’s Prevention and Public Health Fund, including Community Transformation Grants, initiatives for tobacco control and chronic-disease prevention and control, many National Prevention Strategy initiatives, and state and local actions addressing tobacco use, nutrition, and the linkage between clinical and community-based prevention.

Reductions in smoking, sodium consumption, and trans fat consumption can substantially and rapidly improve cardiovascular health. Warning people about the harms of tobacco use through mass media and other measures, as well as package labeling as enabled by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, and creating smoke-free public places and workplaces, as detailed in the National Prevention Strategy and facilitated through ACA-funded community grants, should further reduce smoking rates by discouraging smoking initiation and encouraging cessation.

Reducing sodium intake, another key National Prevention Strategy intervention, reduces risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Because most dietary sodium comes from processed and restaurant foods, it’s difficult for Americans to limit their sodium consumption. Procurement guidelines from the DHHS and the General Services Administration and proposed school-food standards from the Department of Agriculture include a focus on sodium reduction. Menu-labeling requirements in chain restaurants will help people make more informed choices. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is increasing public and professional education regarding sodium, and the CDC’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will begin collecting information on sodium consumption.

Consumption of artificial trans fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by raising low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lowering high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Replacing artificial trans fat with heart-healthy oils is feasible and does not increase the cost or change the flavor or texture of foods. Since the Food and Drug Administration began requiring listing of trans fat content on food labels, the industry has voluntarily reformulated foods, and according to CDC data, Americans’ trans fat consumption has decreased by at least half. Elimination of such consumption could prevent 50,000 deaths per year.5

Million Hearts will leverage, focus, and align existing investments and generally not require new public spending. Voluntary initiatives will simplify, harmonize, and automate clinicians’ reporting requirements, decrease administrative burden, improve the quality of prevention and care, and inform the public more fully. Improvements in control of the ABCS, nutrition, and smoking are projected to prevent more than a million heart attacks and strokes over the initiative’s first 5 years. By focusing our initial efforts where they will save the most lives, we aim to make progress toward a health system that will serve Americans’ needs in the 21st century.

Kabar Gembira!!!!! Ada vaksin antimalaria

NEJM telah melaporkan hasil uji klinik vaksin antimalaria. Berita selengkapnya sebagai berikut:
Original Article
A Field Trial to Assess a Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine

Mahamadou A. Thera, M.D., M.P.H., Ogobara K. Doumbo, M.D., Ph.D., Drissa Coulibaly, M.D., Matthew B. Laurens, M.D., M.P.H., Amed Ouattara, Pharm.D., Abdoulaye K. Kone, M.D., Ando B. Guindo, M.D., Karim Traore, M.D., Idrissa Traore, M.D., Bourema Kouriba, Pharm.D., Ph.D., Dapa A. Diallo, M.D., Issa Diarra, Pharm.D., Modibo Daou, Pharm.D., Amagana Dolo, Pharm.D., Ph.D., Youssouf Tolo, Pharm.D., Mahamadou S. Sissoko, M.D., M.S.P.H., Amadou Niangaly, Pharm.D., Mady Sissoko, Pharm.D., Shannon Takala-Harrison, Ph.D., Kirsten E. Lyke, M.D., Yukun Wu, Ph.D., William C. Blackwelder, Ph.D., Olivier Godeaux, M.D., Johan Vekemans, M.D., Ph.D., Marie-Claude Dubois, M.Sc., W. Ripley Ballou, M.D., Joe Cohen, Ph.D., Darby Thompson, M.S., Tina Dube, Ph.D., Lorraine Soisson, Ph.D., Carter L. Diggs, M.D., Ph.D., Brent House, Ph.D., David E. Lanar, Ph.D., Sheetij Dutta, Ph.D., D. Gray Heppner, Jr., M.D., and Christopher V. Plowe, M.D., M.P.H.

N Engl J Med 2011; 365:1004-1013September 15, 2011

Abstract
Background

Blood-stage malaria vaccines are intended to prevent clinical disease. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, a recombinant protein based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, has previously been shown to have immunogenicity and acceptable safety in Malian adults and children.

Full Text of Background…
Methods

In a double-blind, randomized trial, we immunized 400 Malian children with either the malaria vaccine or a control (rabies) vaccine and followed them for 6 months. The primary end point was clinical malaria, defined as fever and at least 2500 parasites per cubic millimeter of blood. A secondary end point was clinical malaria caused by parasites with the AMA1 DNA sequence found in the vaccine strain.

Full Text of Methods…
Results

The cumulative incidence of the primary end point was 48.4% in the malaria-vaccine group and 54.4% in the control group; efficacy against the primary end point was 17.4% (hazard ratio for the primary end point, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.09; P=0.18). Efficacy against the first and subsequent episodes of clinical malaria, as defined on the basis of various parasite-density thresholds, was approximately 20%. Efficacy against clinical malaria caused by parasites with AMA1 corresponding to that of the vaccine strain was 64.3% (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.86; P=0.03). Local reactions and fever after vaccination were more frequent with the malaria vaccine.

Full Text of Results…
Conclusions

On the basis of the primary end point, the malaria vaccine did not provide significant protection against clinical malaria, but on the basis of secondary results, it may have strain-specific efficacy. If this finding is confirmed, AMA1 might be useful in a multicomponent malaria vaccine. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00460525.)

Diskusi Panel dan Buka Puasa Bersama

              Alhamdulillahirobbilalamin, segala puji syukur kita panjatkan bagi Allah SWT yang menggegam langit dan bumi, atas kasih sayang dan izinnya panitia telah diberikan kesempatan dan kekuatan untuk mengadakan acara diskusi panel dengan tema “ Puasa ditinjau dari sudut religiusitas dan kesehatan serta dilanjutkan dengan buka puasa persama untuk seluruh dosen, karyawan dan mahasiswa fakultas farmasi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta pada tanggal 9 Agustus 2011 diselenggarakan oleh Pusat Kajian dan Informasi Obat, Kosmetika, Makanan, Bahan Alam Serta Sediaan Sintesis.

           Adapun acara diskusi panel dan buka puasa bersama bagi seluruh dosen, karyawan dan mahasiswa Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta dilaksanakan pada hari Selasa, 9 November 2011 jam 16.00 WIB di Ruang kelas 302 Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta.

             Peserta yang mengikuti acara tersebut  adalah dosen, karyawan serta mahasiswa Program Profesi Apoteker Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Yogyakarta, yaitu sebanyak 32 orang.

Materi yang disampaikan dalam diskusi panel tersebut membahas tentang tinjauan puasa dengan kesehatan dan religiusitas. Diskusi panel yang dimoderator oleh Bpk. Azis Ikhsanudin dan disampaikan oleh Bpk. Prof. Dr. Mursyidi, Apt yang membahas puasa dari sudut religiusitas serta Bpk. dr. Akrom, M.Kes yang membahas tentang puasa dari sudut kesehatan. Diskusi panel berjalan apik dan menarik serta mendapat antusiasme yang besar dari para peserta terlihat dari banyaknya pertanyaan dan komentar dari para peserta. Setelah selesainya acara tersebut maka dilanjutkan dengan acara buka puasa bersama.

Berita Lomba Konseling Obat di UI

Salah satu peserta lomba konseling Obat di Fakultas Farmasi UI dari Fakultas Farmasi UAD masuk final. Lomba konseling obat dilakukan oleh Fakultas Farmasi UI dalam rangka dies natalis mereka. Fakultas Farmasi UAD telah mengirimkan 3 peserta untuk mengikuti babak penyisihan. Dari 3 peserta yang dikirimkan ada satu wakil yang dapat maju ke babak final. Mohon doa dan restunya. Semoga sukses.